The course of development through the lifespan is studied as the interplay between individual predispositions (genetic and biological factors, past history, current stage) and forces in the environment (other individuals, social factors, cultural tradition, training methods). Among the specific topics examined from an interactionist point of view are motivation and adaptation, the role of anxiety and other affects in regulating behavior, sense of self, attachment, and self-esteem regulation. Relevant infant and child research is reviewed.
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